​Maddie Hubly And Maddie Steck: Period 7The Grand Canyon!!


The Grand Canyon used to reside at the bottom of the ocean. Scientists know this because Cybab Limestone is the uppermost layer of rock in the canyon. Cybab Limestone is made from the calcium in the bones of animals falling the bottom of the ocean and building up, layer upon layer, over millions of years. After those millions and millions of years, the solid rock of the Grand Canyon was formed.

There are three types of rock that are a part of the Grand Canyon; sedimentary rock, which lies flat at the top of the canyon, igneous rock, that is made when magma ignites and then hardens into solid rock, and metomorphic rock, which is either sedimentary or igneous rock changed by pressure or heat.

Some rock in the Grand Canyon is formed from sand dunes that turned to stone. If you look close enough at this sort of rock, you can see the cross-betting from the sand blowing around in the wind. This kind of stone can date back to 250 million years ago.


The various cracks and crevices of the canyon were formed from the extreme erosion that took place in the Grand Canyon. It is also known that, because of this erosion, two miles that used to stretch from the now edge of the canyon have eroded away over many years. Over the course of eight years, it has been proven that the Grand Canyon has lost HALF of it's VOLUME!

Some of the stylistic cracks and sculpted rocks of the canyon were created from the outcome of the extreme differences in weather. When a spell of rain or snow would fall on the canyon, some of the water that had melted when it hit the ground, would wedge itself in between some of the loose rocks in the canyon. And since water expands as it freezes, when it would get cold enough, the water would freezed and, little by little, cause a crack to form between rocks.
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This is the famous Bright Angel fault. It is known as a "normal" type of fault. As you can see the trail that used to lead right in the middle of the fault continues right to the edge and drops off.


Madalyn_532.JPGThe Colorado river stretches 277 miles through the Grand Canyon compared to the rim of the canyon, which spreads 1,300 miles total in length. This very river was explored and traveled on by John Wesley Powell, his crew, and four Whitehall boats. John Powell was the first man brave enough to explore the wonders of the Grand Canyon by river.

This journey provided various difficulties. Many rapids created by stones from the canyon knocked into the river's path from extreme weather, could become very large!

The river used to experience various flashfloods over the course of a year. But today, the Glen Canyon Dam regulates the flow of the river to a calm speed (excluding the rapids). This man-made dam produces hydro-electricity for millions of people world-wide. But this dam has also upset the balance of the Colorado river. The river used to be brown and warm but now it is cold and a greenish color. Now animals such as birds, bobcats, and Big Horned Sheep find a home near the river's edge. The flashfloods are not native to the river anymore so vegetation grows near it's edge, making it easier for animals to live down in the canyon.

The Glen Canyon dam now seperates the Colorado river from the lake that was created due to the cut off from the river, Lake Powell.
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This is a natural occurance called "Desert Varnish."

These are the only petrogliphs in the whole Grand Canyon made by the true founders of this canyon, NaMadalyn_601.JPGtive Americans.



This is the home of a Wupatki occupant. Wupatki means big house and it acted as just this. This big home housed about 2000 people at one point in time. These people were what scientists believe to have been Peblouan Indian tribes. Scientists made an educated guess that these tribes lived together in peace. But when Sunset Crater erupted, it covered the Wapatki area completely in ash and all the people of Wapatki left their village.

But this was not the end of Wapatki. The tribes came back to their home after Sunset Crater stopped erupting. They found their land covered in cinder. They learned that cinder holds water very well and they produced crops such as corn, squash, and beans with ease.

Because they were making food without difficulty, life was easier and the Wapatki indians found time to create a game. Using pitch from a tree, the tribes made a rubber ball to play some sort of competative ball game.

There is only one petrogliph in the whole Wapatki village: a snake.

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Sunset Crater is a cindercone volcano. It was named by John Wesley Powell, the man who explored the Grand Canyon for the first time. Scientists believe that the valcano will remain dormant for the rest of it's existence. They believe that it will never erupt again.
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